Potential in the Making

21 Apr

$\Phi = \sum_{e \notin C} n^{2w_e}+n\exp\left(\frac{1}{2a}\left(\sum_{s \notin C^\prime} c_s - \sum_S 3x_sc_s \log(n)\right)\right)$

This was the equation my professor put on the board. Magically. If you’ve seen algorithmic analysis before,  you may recognize the form as a potential function. Effectively, this is a very convenient and powerful way to performing an amortized analysis on an otherwise difficult-to-analyze algorithm. Said another way, it’s a way by which we can keep track of money coming in and going out of a metaphorical bank. Think of it this way: some weeks you need only $5 dollars, every once in a while you need$10 and one time you need $500 for a big expense. How much money do you usually need to go a week? A worst-case analysis will yield$500/wk, a gross over-estimate. A best-case analysis will yield $5, which doesn’t come close to covering the$500 you need that one time. Instead, we look at it through a type of averaging that allows us to retain the intricacies of the nature of the algorithm but more cleanly and tightly express bounds on its performance.

Here’s another example. Give a good estimate for a representative value of the “ruler function”. I put that in quotes because even I confused it with the more famous function which has differing continuities at rational and irrational numbers. The sequence I am here referring to is Sloane A001511. A graph of the function below reveals the reason behind its naming.

Now once more, a worst-case analysis or best-case analysis fail terribly (giving values of one and arbitrarily large as the sequence gets longer). But we can do better and that therefore is the purpose of amortized analysis.

There’s a great plenty that can be said about amortized analysis but I will focus on one particular aspect here: how the hell did we get that thing on the top of this page? I said it was magical but that was a lie. As it turns out, the rationale for this particular function derives from its formulation via a casting into a linear programming question. From this then were the characteristic properties drawn and put together. The problem for which this potential function applies is the Online Set Cover problem, which I will describe quickly below:

Online Set Cover

This is a pretty natural extension to a very common and simple problem called the Set Cover problem. The basic idea is this: you’d like to cover a finite set of elements using a subset from a set of subsets of the original elements. Formally, given $E = \{e_1, \ldots, e_n\}$ and a family of subsets $S =\{S_i\}_{i=1}^m$ with $S_i \subseteq E$, with possible overlaps between different sets. Each subset is assigned a non-negative weight $c_i$ for each $i=1, 2, \ldots, m$ and we wish to find the subset of family $S$ that both covers every element in $E$ and has the minimum weight. In the online variation of this problem, we are provided each $S_i$ one at a time and we must immediately update our current best minimum weight set cover. The potential function above is used in the analysis of one algorithm to solve this problem.

The moral of the story, as I have learned through the course of this semester, is that potential functions are not as free-form as I had first thought. I was formally introduced to this type of analysis in both of my algorithms classes this semester and through seeing the utilization of this technique time and time again, I realize that reductions and re-castings of the problem in an entirely unrelated framework can eek out insights that otherwise fare well in avoiding the eye.

This is another part in my journey to learn about the structure of computation. As corny as it may sound, I like to think that numbers, in accordance to the laws of mathematics in this universe, hold deeper secrets than we like to usually give them credit for. My real aim here is to unravel the complexities of varied algorithms in different applications and find a common, basic, irreducible element of them all. It wonders me to see how much more we can see if we just look at a problem in the right way. While linear programming is something I’ve come to gain a great respect for this semester, it’s still only the tip of the iceberg. There is an even broader scope by which we may express a problem and perhaps other techniques will be the topic of future posts.